|Apr. 20, 2003. 01:00 AM|
Ex-U.S. official says CIA aided Baathists|
CIA offers no comment on Iraq coup allegations Claim that
was on payroll `utterly ridiculous'
PHILADELPHIAIf the United States succeeds in
shepherding the creation of a post-war Iraqi government, a former
National Security Council official says, it won't be the first time
that Washington has played a primary role in changing that country's
Roger Morris, a former State Department foreign service
officer who was on the NSC staff during the Johnson and Nixon
administrations, says the CIA had a hand in two coups in Iraq during
the darkest days of the Cold War, including a 1968 putsch that set
Saddam Hussein firmly on the path to power.
Morris says that in 1963, two years after the ill-fated U.S.
attempt at overthrow in Cuba known as the Bay of Pigs, the CIA
helped organize a bloody coup in Iraq that deposed the
Soviet-leaning government of Gen. Abdel-Karim Kassem.
"This takes you down a longer, darker road in terms of
American culpability ....
"As in Iran in '53, it was mostly American money and even
American involvement on the ground," says Morris, referring to a
U.S.-backed coup that brought the return of the shah to neighbouring
Kassem, who had allowed communists to hold positions of
responsibility in his government, was machine-gunned to death. And
the country wound up in the hands of the Baath party.
At the time, Morris continues, Saddam was a Baath operative
studying law in Cairo, one of the venues the CIA chose to plan the
In fact, he claims the former Iraqi president castigated by
President George W. Bush as one of history's most "brutal dictators"
was actually on the CIA payroll in those days.
"There's no question," Morris says. "It was there in Cairo
that (Saddam) and others were first contacted by the agency."
In 1968, Morris says, the CIA encouraged a palace revolt
among Baath party elements led by long-time Saddam mentor Ahmed
Hassan al-Bakr, who would turn over the reins of power to his
ambitious protιgι in 1979.
"It's a regime that was unquestionably midwived by the United
States, and the (CIA's) involvement there was really primary,"
His version of history is a far cry from current American
rhetoric about Iraq a country that top U.S. officials say has been
liberated from decades of tyranny and given the chance for a bright
There's no mention of America's own alleged role in giving
birth to the regime.
A spokesman for the Central Intelligence Agency declined to
comment on the claims of CIA involvement in the Iraqi coups but said
Morris' assertion that Saddam once received payments from the CIA is
Morris, who resigned from the NSC staff over the 1970 U.S.
invasion of Cambodia, says he learned the details of American covert
involvement in Iraq from ranking CIA officials of the day, including
Teddy Roosevelt's grandson, Archibald Roosevelt.
Now 65, Morris went on to become a Nixon biographer and is
currently writing a book about U.S. covert action in Afghanistan and
He regards Saddam as a deposed U.S. client in the mold of
former Philippine president Ferdinand Marcos and former Panamanian
dictator Manuel Noriega.
"We climb into bed with these people without really knowing
anything about their politics," Morris says. "It's not unusual, of
course, in American policy. We tire of these people, and we find
reasons to shed them." But many experts, including foreign affairs
scholars, say there is little to suggest U.S. involvement in Iraq in
David Wise, a Washington-based author who has written
extensively about Cold War espionage, says he is only aware of
records showing that a CIA group known as the "Health Alteration
Committee" tried to assassinate Kassem in 1960 by sending the Iraqi
leader a poisoned monogrammed handkerchief.
"Clearly, they felt that Kassem was somebody who had to be
eliminated," Wise says.
Morris contends that little is known about CIA involvement in
the Iraqi coups because the Middle East did not hold as much
strategic importance in the 1960s and most senior U.S. officials
involved there at the time have since died.
But even if the United States played no role in the rise of
Iraq's Baath party, experts say Washington has obviously had to
confront unintended consequences of former U.S. policies including
those of Bush's father, George H.W. Bush, who was CIA director
before becoming president.
"There are always some unintended consequences," says Helmut
Sonnenfeldt, guest scholar in foreign policy studies at the
Brookings Institution and former NSC staffer.
"There were unintended consequences in World War I that
brought the rise of Hitler."
The United States and other Western powers supported Saddam's
regime during the 1980-88 Iran-Iraq war, even after the Baghdad
government used chemical weapons to kill thousands of Kurdish
villagers in Halabja.
The 1988 atrocity recently was a cornerstone of U.S.
justifications for its war to topple Saddam's regime.
Before war broke out last month, a flurry of U.S. headlines
also called attention to reports that pathogens used by Iraq for its
biological warfare program came from the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention and a private Manassas, Va.-based biological samples
repository called the American Type Culture Collection.
Officials at the two institutions said shipments of anthrax,
West Nile virus, botulinum toxins and other pathogens were sent to
Iraq in the 1980s with U.S. commerce department approval for medical
Even Iraq's alleged nuclear weapons program, which U.S.
officials said was on the verge of producing a nuclear bomb last
year, got under way with help from a 1950s Eisenhower administration
program to share the peaceful benefits of nuclear energy called
"Atoms for Peace."
That is according to the Nuclear Threat Initiative, a
Washington-based group co-founded by media mogul Ted Turner and
former U.S. senator Sam Nunn to reduce the global threat of nuclear,
chemical and biological weapons.
James Phillips, senior Middle East analyst for the Heritage
Foundation, disagrees that Bush's war in Iraq is the result of CIA
But he says the United States did turn a blind eye to the
chance to topple Saddam during the 1991 Gulf War, just as it left
Afghanistan to the mercy of the Taliban and Osama bin Laden's Al
Qaeda network after Soviet forces left that country.
"I am reminded of the biblical expression about the sins of
the father," Phillips says.
"The first Bush administration was the one that decided to
cut off aid to the mujahideen in Afghanistan and set them
adrift. And they were also the ones who decided not to go to Baghdad
during the first Gulf War."