This may have something to do with the opposition of the next two presidents, Adams and Jefferson, who considered a private, central bank an unconstitutional abomination. But the votes were close in 1811, and President James Madison’s Vice President George Clinton cast the tie-breaking vote in the Senate defeating renewal of the charter, reflecting his president’s (and Jefferson’s) long-standing opposition to a central bank. Thus failed the first attempt to control America’s money. John Adams wrote in a letter to Thomas Jefferson in 1787 “All the perplexities, confusion and distress in America rise, not from defects in their Constitution or Confederation, not from want of honor or virtue, so much as from downright ignorance of the nature of coin, credit and circulation.” But this was only to be the first attempt.

In this week’s column, we shall focus on a larger-than-life figure, a man who would openly declare war on the international banker and then we shall hint as to the details of next week’s article, Part III. But who was this man? Before becoming president and in spite of minimal formal education, he would be a lawyer, a military general, a U.S. Representative (1796-97), a U.S. Senator (1797-98), Justice of the Tennessee Supreme Court (1798-1804), Governor of the Florida Territory (1821), again, a U.S. Senator (1823-25), and finally, President of the United States (1829-1837). His name was Andrew Jackson.

During a time when men were men and there were only 24 states in the Union, there was a man who made THE difference in defeating the second attempt to maintain a private, national bank in America. He became president, despite having little formal education, and being the third son of an impoverished family of Irish immigrants. Andrew Jackson would hold many posts and develop a legendary reputation as an exceptionally pugnacious man. In short, whether it was with his fists, knives, pistols, or the sword, he never hesitated to defend his honor, that of his wife, or his country.

This thin man who stood 6 feet tall and had a head full of shocking red hair walked the earth during a time when most men were some six inches shorter. Jackson was not to be taken lightly. His fist fights and duels with other men were/are the stuff of legends. In today’s politically correct world, Andrew Jackson would be in prison. The man known as “Old Hickory” and “King Andrew” was not a man with whom to toy. Nor should we hide the fact that he was indeed a slave owner, responsible for the notorious “Trail of Tears” and an overall very rough man. (This author is not an apologist for actions considered wholly unsavory in today’s world, but only seeks to highlight the man’s role in relationship to banking.) To the day he died, he carried a number of bullets lodged in his body from duels and spontaneous fights with other men. How tough was Andrew Jackson?

For example, during the War of 1812, Jackson organized volunteers with little experience to fight the Native American Creek Tribe, who had been armed and incited to rebel against the US government, by the British. At the time, the Creek Tribe had attacked what is now known as Alabama. He also convinced other native tribes to assist him. Jackson literally inundated the Creek Tribe, killing nearly a thousand Creek and burning dozens of villages. He took control of 23 million acres for the US government. It is said, he was ruthless. But the times being what they were, this action brought him to the attention of the nation. Apparently as a direct result, Jackson was promoted to the highest rank in the Army and given command of the entire Southern Command where it seemed the British were laying a total invasion of Louisiana. Jackson organized, with the help of a notorious man named Jean Laffite, a rag-tag army of volunteers that had little or no military training.

In the historic battle that would follow, known as “The Battle of New Orleans,” which took place on January 8, 1815, most agree that the Jackson-led forces killed almost 2,000 highly trained British soldiers—and Jackson’s “volunteers” lost only 70 men! There is not enough space here to list Jackson’s additional military accomplishments. Suffice it to say the man’s legend only grew. It was at that time that many began to say that surely this man would be president. Of course, this was a time in America when being exceptionally tough, straightforward, no nonsense, and honest were actually regarded as honorable and desirable traits to the average American. (My, how American values have changed.)

Well, this was the last thing that the international bankers who were behind the War of 1812 wanted: A common, self-made man, who was less likely to engage you in any intellectual conversation, but was much more likely to pummel you with his fists, stab you, run you through with a sword, or shoot you, if he felt you to be a threat to the Union—definitely not the kind of guy to try to buddy up to if you happened to be an international banker. In short, he was a man of the people and the worst possible nightmare for the elite eastern establishment, a “vulgar frontiersman” destined to be president!

And then it came to be that after a hotly debated presidential election of 1824, Jackson, despite winning the overwhelming majority of popular votes, and the most electoral college votes, did not win the majority of electoral college votes. As was the rule of the day, the election was thrown into the House of Representatives, where John Quincy Adams emerged victorious. To say that “Old Hickory” was mad would represent a tremendous understatement.

But in the election of 1828, there was no stopping Old Hickory. The rules had changed somewhat, in that those without property could now vote and many more became eligible for the vote. Paper ballots also became in vogue. Jackson walked away with 56% of the popular vote and an overwhelmingly majority of the electoral college vote. He swept the election. Now to the heart of the matter.

Jackson may have not known much about banks. Many insist he was not a sophisticated man. In fact, one of his famous quotes is “It’s a damn poor mind that can only think of one way to spell a word.” Yet, whether it was from his experiences as youth dealing with bankers or just his gut instinct, one thing was for sure: President Andrew Jackson absolutely hated banks and bankers. He saved his most vehement hatred for the Second Bank of the United States (very similar to The First Bank of the United States and today’s Federal Reserve). This institution had been chartered by Congress in 1816. Jackson never trusted any form of money, save for gold. Andrew Jackson absolutely believed that anyone who was a banker served no purpose other than to prey upon the poor, hard-working, and honest people of America. In short, he regarded bankers as pure parasites.

So, it should not be surprising that the Second Bank of the United States, to Jackson, represented everything that was wrong with pre-War 1812 America (Jackson lost two brothers and his mother to the war). Much like today’s so-called Fed, the majority of the bank’s directors were government appointees. Nonetheless, this was a private bank owned by wealthy easterners and Europeans. One Nicholas Biddle, an exceptionally intelligent and well educated man, who hailed from Philadelphia, directed operations of the bank and its 30 branches across the 24-state nation.

Not surprisingly, the Second Bank kept on deposit all government money (which at the time was a mixture of state bank notes, silver and gold coins, and even some foreign currency, as there was no national currency yet established), sold all government bonds, and also made commercial loans. Yet, the institution was certainly not democratic. No American voters could direct or determine its policies, which, like today’s Fed included inflating and contracting the money supply at will, controlling interest rates, and having enormous impact upon the life of every American (sound familiar?). It was a government unto itself and Andrew Jackson vowed to destroy it.

Upon taking office, Jackson had a delegation of bankers visit him in the Oval Office. After listening to them, he offered the following observation before evicting them from his presence: “You are a den of vipers and thieves. I intend to rout you out, and by the grace of the eternal God, will rout you out.” Jackson subsequently was quoted as saying “If Congress has the right under the Constitution to issue paper money, it was given to be used by themselves, not to be delegated to individuals or corporations.” He is also quoted as saying “If a national debt is considered a national blessing, then we can get on by borrowing. But as I believe it is a national curse, my vow shall be to pay the national debt.” History records that President Jackson was/is the ONLY president in the entire history of America to reduce the federal debt to ZERO. He kept his word.

In the meantime, the bank continued to engage in its usury and engaged in the practice of fractional reserve banking. For example, its 30 branches had nowhere near the amount of gold on hand to back up their cash deposits, which, at the time, were supposed to be redeemable for gold or silver. As a result, the banks were very tight with money, as The Second National Bank was presumed to hold the “hard” assets of gold and silver to back the notes issued. In this way, Second Bank notes became increasingly relied upon.

In sum, back in the 1830s, just like today, the average Joe or Jane did not have a clue when it came to understanding the relationship between prices, currency supplies, prices of goods, and interest rates. Not a clue. However, people pretty much shared the opinion of Andrew Jackson: Banks had too much power and were corrupt institutions. Even many state banks had no love for the Second Bank, as they recognized the power it wielded. (Nothing has changed.)

So here is what happened, the Second Bank had been given a 20 year charter (recall it was instituted by Congress in 1816). Well, the bankers feared (certainly with good reason) that Andrew Jackson would not renew their charter, due to come up in 1836. The bank boys decided to make the matter an issue of the 1932 election, by introducing a bill in Congress to renew the charter early. Andrew Jackson was standing for reelection. In the bankers’ minds, they were thinking that Jackson would not touch this issue in an election year. Clearly, these fools did not know Andrew Jackson. While running for reelection, Jackson happily vetoed the measure (which, obviously, had passed Congress) and Congress was unable to overcome his veto.

But President Jackson did not just veto the measure, he made it a campaign issue! His veto message sent shock waves through the banking community and he went further: He likened the Second Bank to a monster monopoly controlled by rich easterners and foreigners. Some argue that Jackson’s veto also established the precedent that a president did not necessarily have to veto a bill based solely on constitutional grounds, but merely on the grounds of presidential policy. He was successfully reelected, a man of the people. But did he stop there...hell no! The bankers had picked a fight with the wrong man. Jackson commented “The Bank is trying to kill me,
but I will kill it!

It was true that the Second Bank’s charter did not expire until 1836, but by 1833 Jackson ordered his Secretary of the Treasury, William J. Duane to remove all government deposits from the Second Bank and deposit them in state banks. Duane refused to do so; Jackson promptly fired him. Jackson replaced Duane with Attorney General Roger Taney. This too, arguably, established a precedent, namely, that a president may remove a cabinet member due to policy conflict. Many argue that this represented a major expansion of  presidential power.

What happened next was that Senator Henry Clay (one of Jackson’s opponents in the previous two elections) did what had never been done before, that is he led a vote of censure against the president in the Senate—this had never occurred before. Yet, members of the House of Representatives, perhaps a bit closer to the people (remember Senators were elected by State Legislatures at the time) did not concur with Clay and the censure effort failed in the House. Three years later, the Senate rescinded their previous censure of President Jackson.

Remember Mr. Biddle, the manager de-facto of the Second Bank of the United States? Well, with all government deposits gone, he began to call in the Bank's loans. He demanded payment in gold from state banks for their notes held by the Second Bank. The result was a mild recession in 1834. However, a robust period of economic prosperity was to follow, due to President Jackson’s redistribution of nearly $40 million in gold to state banks of his liking. It is said that the banks then issued notes five times the value of the gold to borrowers (not nearly as bad as today’s 10 times the amount of deposit ratio of fractional reserve banking practiced today with phony electronic entry money). Mr. Biddle ended up indicted on various charges...but through his well-oiled political connections, escaped any punishment.

Unfortunately, Jackson had excellent instincts, but did not fully grasp the ramifications of his actions (not to say that he should have renewed the Second Bank’s charter). He established policy that thereafter only gold would be accepted for acquisition of lands out west (the country was expanding rapidly). One effect was that British bankers, who were having their own problems, called in American loans. Hence, credit contracted. At the same time cotton prices began to plummet and the economy experienced a downturn that lasted for a good six years.

In his farewell address to the country, President Jackson’s speech included the following, which is well worth reading: “But when the charter for the Bank of the United States was obtained from Congress it perfected the schemes of the paper system and gave to its advocates the position they have struggled to obtain from the commencement of the Federal Government to the present hour...and it openly claimed for itself the power of regulating the currency throughout the United States. In other words, it asserted (and it undoubtedly possessed) the power to make money plenty or scarce at its pleasure, at any time and in any quarter of the Union, by controlling the issues of other banks and permitting an expansion or compelling a general contraction of the circulating medium, according to its own will...The result of the ill-advised legislation which established this great monopoly was to concentrate the whole moneyed power of the Union, with its boundless means of corruption and its numerous dependents, under the direction and command of one acknowledged head, thus organizing this particular interest as one body and securing to it unity and concert of action throughout the United States, and enabling it to bring forward upon any occasion its entire and undivided strength to support or defeat any measure of the it the power to regulate the value of property and the fruits of labor in every quarter of the Union, and to bestow prosperity or bring ruin upon any city or section of the country as might best comport with its own interest or policy...The distress and alarm which pervaded and agitated the whole country when the Bank of the United States waged war upon the people in order to compel them to submit to its demands can not yet be forgotten. The ruthless and unsparing temper with which whole cities and communities were oppressed, individuals impoverished and ruined, and a scene of cheerful prosperity suddenly changed into one of gloom and despondency ought to be indelibly impressed on the memory of the people of the United States. If such was its power in a time of peace, what would it not have been in a season of war, with an enemy at your doors? No nation but the freemen of the United States could have come out victorious from such a contest; yet, if you had not conquered, the Government would have passed from the hands of the many to the hands of the few, and this organized money power from its secret conclave would have dictated the choice of your highest officers and compelled you to make peace or war, as best suited their own wishes. The forms of your Government might for a time have remained, but its living spirit would have departed from it...Let us abide by the Constitution as it is written...The severe lessons of experience will, I doubt not, be sufficient to prevent Congress from again chartering such a monopoly, even if the Constitution did not present an insuperable objection to it. But you must remember, my fellow-citizens, that eternal vigilance by the people is the price of liberty, and that you must pay the price if you wish to secure the blessing. It behooves you, therefore, to be watchful in your States as well as in the Federal Government. The power which the moneyed interest can exercise, when concentrated under a single head and with our present system of currency, was sufficiently demonstrated in the struggle made by the Bank of the United States...the time will soon come when it will again take the field against the United States and succeed in perfecting and perpetuating its organization by a charter from Congress...check this spirit of monopoly and thirst for exclusive privileges you will in the end find that the most important powers of Government have been given or bartered away, and the control over your dearest interests has passed into the hands of these corporations...The men who profit by the abuses and desire to perpetuate them will continue to besiege the halls of legislation in the General Government as well as in the States, and will seek by every artifice to mislead and deceive the public servants. It is to yourselves that you must look for safety and the means of guarding and perpetuating your free institutions. In your hands is rightfully placed the sovereignty of the country, and to you everyone placed in authority is ultimately responsible. It is always in your power to see that the wishes of the people are carried into faithful execution, and their will, when once made known, must sooner or later be obeyed; and while the people remain, as I trust they ever will, uncorrupted and incorruptible, and continue watchful and jealous of their rights, the Government is safe, and the cause of freedom will continue to triumph over all its enemies.”

So where are we today folks? Despite his personal faults and foul temper, President Jackson was right, was he not? The efforts of the money vultures have not ceased since the very first day of this founding of America and have culminated, in America with the so-called Federal Reserve System. Our ignorance of money must come to an end. Do you consider that in elementary, junior high, and high school, you and your children were never taught the details of the Constitution or the Bill of Rights? Were you or your children ever taught the basics of money or insurance? Do you think our country would be better off if our children were educated concerning constitutional and financial matters?

Is it not embarrassing to our nation that the average 18 year old does not understand basic insurance policies, does not understand the ramifications of credit card usage, and does not understand what an annual percentage rate is? Does the average American know what a debt/income ratio is? Does the average American understand the formula used to calculate net worth? This nation has been purposely dumbed down in preparation for totalitarianism. We are slaves of the worst kind—those who falsely believe we are free.

It is no coincidence that the 16th Amendment (of which great evidence exists to substantiate was never properly ratified), the Income Tax Act, and the Federal Reserve Act all came, literally within months of each other in 1913. Are you grasping the truth? Income taxes are nothing more than a guarantee that interest will be paid on the federal debt, to our PRIVATE Federal Reserve System, majority-owned by foreigners. Note the following from the Grace Commission, established by President Ronald Reagan in an effort to reform the tax system. “100% of what is collected is absorbed solely by interest on the Federal Debt...all individual income tax revenues are gone before one nickel is spent on the services taxpayers expect from government.” Nice.

In a letter to William Elkin, written only five months before he was assassinated, Abraham Lincoln, with enormous foresight wrote “I see in the near future a crisis approaching. It unnerves me and causes me to tremble for the safety of my country. Corporations have been enthroned, an era of corruption will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people, until the wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the Republic is destroyed.”

Now consider the words of Robert Hemphill, former Credit Manager of the Federal Reserve Bank in Atlanta. “This is a staggering thought. We are completely dependent on the commercial Banks. Someone has to borrow every dollar we have in circulation, cash or credit. If the Banks create ample synthetic money we are prosperous; if not, we starve. We are absolutely without a permanent money system. When one gets a complete grasp of the picture, the tragic absurdity of our hopeless position is almost incredible, but there it is. It is the most important subject intelligent persons can investigate and reflect upon. It is so important that our present civilization may collapse unless it becomes widely understood and the defects remedied very soon.”

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR), who, in my opinion (and arguably that of The History Channel), committed treason when he unnecessarily sacrificed over 3,000 Americans in Pearl Harbor, and FDR who was absolutely in bed with the international bankers even admitted in a November 23, 1933 letter to the infamous “Colonel” Edward Mandell House that “The real truth of the matter is, as you and I know, that a financial element in the large centers has owned the government of the United States since the days of Andrew Jackson. History depicts Andrew Jackson as the last truly honorable and incorruptible American president.”

Former President Clinton, a member of the ultra-powerful Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), saw fit to mention his former Georgetown Professor Carrol Quigley in his 1992 inauguration speech. In Quigley’s 1966 book, Tragedy and Hope, Quigley, an apologist for the international bankers wrote: “In a small Swiss city sits an international organization so obscure and secretive...Control of the institution, the Bank for International Settlements, lies with some of the world's most powerful and least visible men: the heads of 32 central banks, officials able to shift billions of dollars and alter the course of economies at the stroke of a pen.” Hey, that is great to know is it not? Surely we are the Republic we have always been...In the same book, Quigley writes “The CFR, New York City, is the American Branch of a society which originated in England and believes national directives should be obliterated and one-world rule established. I know of the operations of this network because I have studied it for twenty years, and was permitted in the early 1960's to examine its papers and secret records...I believe its role in history is significant enough to be known.” Quigley also wrote “The powers or financial capitalism had a far-reaching aim, nothing less than to create a world system of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole. This system was to be controlled in a feudalist fashion by the central banks of the world acting in concert, by secret agreements arrived at in frequent meetings and conferences. The apex of the systems was to be the Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland, a private bank owned and controlled by the world's central banks which were themselves private corporations. Each central bank...sought to dominate its government by its ability to control Treasury loans, to manipulate foreign exchanges, to influence the level of economic activity in the country, and to influence cooperative politicians by subsequent economic rewards in the business world.”

How much more do we need to hear? Well, back in 1930, the former Chairman of the House Committee on Banking and Currency, Louis T. McFadden was quoted in the New York Times as saying “The Federal Reserve Bank of New York is eager to enter into close relationship with the Bank for International Settlements...The conclusion is impossible to escape that the State and Treasury Departments are willing to pool the banking system of Europe and America, setting up a world financial power independent of and above the Government of the United States...The United States under present conditions will be transformed from the most active of manufacturing nations into a consuming and importing nation with a balance of trade against it.” The same Louis McFadden, on the Floor of the House of Representatives stated “The Federal Reserve (Banks) are one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever seen. There is not a man within the sound of my voice who does not know that this Nation is run by the International Bankers.”

According to Chester Ward, Rear Admiral and former Navy Judge Advocate from 1956 to 1960, and a CFR member for 15 years “The main purpose of the CFR is promoting the disarmament of US. sovereignty and national independence and submergence into an all powerful, one world government.” Hey, sounds great to me? How about you? Go CFR!

US Congressman Oscar Callaway entered into the Congressional Record of 1917, page 2949, “In March, 1915, the J.P. Morgan interests, the steel, shipbuilding, and powder interest, and their subsidiary organizations, got together 12 men high up in the newspaper world and employed them to select the most influential newspapers in the United States and sufficient number of them to control generally the policy of the daily press...They found it was only necessary to purchase the control of 25 of the greatest papers. An agreement was reached; the policy of the papers was bought, to be paid for by the month; an editor was furnished for each paper to properly supervise and edit information regarding the questions of preparedness, militarism, financial policies, and other things of national and international nature considered vital to the interests of the purchasers.”

And who is the main benefactor of the CFR? Well, early on (surprise) the Rockefellers took quite an interest. Unbeknownst to David Rockefeller, at a 1991 meeting of the Bilderberg Group (sort of the European version of the CFR), in Baden Baden, Germany, Rocky was reportedly giving a speech to the now-deceased Catherine Graham and other media big shots at the annual Bilderberg meeting, where he was apparently recorded by an attendee who attributes the following remarks to Rockefeller: “We are grateful to the Washington Post, the New York Times, Time Magazine and other great publications whose directors have attended our meetings and respected their promise of discretion for almost forty years...It would have been impossible for us to develop our plan for the world if we had been subject to the bright lights of publicity during those years. But, the world is now more sophisticated and prepared to march towards a world government. The supranational sovereignty of an intellectual elite and world bankers is surely preferable to the national auto determination practiced in past centuries.” Oh, I could not agree more...surely those international bankers know what is best for my community, friends, and family than we poor ignorant souls could ever determine on our own.

Another gem of a quote from the same David Rockefeller, in 1973, was “Whatever the price of the Chinese Revolution, it has obviously succeeded not only in producing more efficient and dedicated administration, but also in fostering high morale and community of purpose...The social experiment in China under Chairman Mao's leadership is one of the most important and successful in human history.” Mao Tse Tung...mass murderer.

Still not convinced? Words from the mouths of those who claim to be Americans, such as George Herbert Walker Bush addressing the General Assembly of the United Nations, February 1, 1992, were “It is the sacred principles enshrined in the United Nations charter to which the American people will henceforth pledge their allegiance.” Have you ever read that “sacred” charter? Go to if you dare. (Just do not do so on a full stomach would be my recommendation.)

Then there is good old Zbigniew Brzezinski, former National Security Advisor, Rockefeller lapdog, and co-founder of the Trilateral Commission (another one of those elitist CFR-type groups, except smaller even more elite) who wrote “...This regionalization is in keeping with the Tri-Lateral Plan which calls for a gradual convergence of East and West, ultimately leading toward the goal of one world government...National sovereignty is no longer a viable concept...” Great! These guys possess genius insight, would you not agree?

Finally, while we are busy making friends with the former Soviet Union, to help the reader complete the international scope of what is being perpetrated upon us all, consider the words of Mikhial Gorbachev, former President of the Soviet Union, who addressed the Politburo in November 1987 and stated “Gentlemen, Comrades, do not be concerned about all you hear about glasnost and perestroika and democracy in the coming years. These are primarily for outward consumption. There will be no significant internal change within the Soviet Union, other than for cosmetic purposes. Our purpose is to disarm the Americans and let them fall asleep.” This is precisely as Lenin predicted (of course, Wall Street financed him too...but that is another story).

Next week we will begin a brief overview of the worm-eaten, corrupt Federal Reserve System and begin to tie in this system with the real objectives of the international bankers, men who mean nothing less than to rule the world through such institutions as the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank. Consider the words of James Paul Warburg, CFR member and original architect of the Federal Reserve Act, before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, February 17, 1950., where he stated “We shall have world government whether or not we like it, by conquest or consent.” Folks, what is happening is for real. Insider FDR stated “In politics nothing happens by accident. If it happened, you can bet it was planned that way.”

For those of you who think, in light of all that is going on in America and the world that you can afford to remain on the sidelines, watch and even give serious consideration to the so-called “news” spoon-fed to us as if we were infants, I strongly suggest you think again. Liberty is not a given. Liberty is taken. (You take it or it will be taken from you...which is happening in America right now?) Liberty is fought for. Liberty means eternal vigilance. Andrew Jackson stated “No one need think that the world can be ruled without blood. The civil sword shall and must be red and bloody.” Now, I do not advocate bloodshed. But who can deny we have become a nation of spoiled, largely overweight, apathetic, observers? Is this the sort of “rough stock” that built this nation? Can we truly hope to hold on to liberty? Do you even care that Congress is busy passing one unconstitutional law after another...after nauseam? You tell me my fellow Americans. Tell me!

"Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil, in its worst state an intolerable one, for when we suffer or are exposed to the same miseries by a government that we might expect from a country without government, our calamities are heightened, by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer."

Thomas Paine, "Common Sense" in 1776

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The Grand Deception: The Theft of America and the World, Part II

By Christopher Mark

As stated in
last week’s article, the battle for control of America’s money began from the very beginning of the nation. The First Bank of the United States, brainchild of Alexander Hamilton (whom many believe to have represented foreign banking interests and whose family ties would certainly lend credence to such assertions), the first Secretary of the Treasury, was established in 1791 (signed into law by none other than George Washington) with a 20 year charter. It was not renewed.